HIS 131: U.S. History II

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Quick Tips:

Library home page (http://www.sunybroome.edu/library)

  • Books: Search for books on the "books/media" tab.  You can also browse books by topic area on the second floor of the library, in the D through F call number sections.
  • Articles: Do a quick search for articles on the "articles" tab but see below for better search techniques.  (If you are off-campus, it will ask you for your MyCollege login information.)
  • Everything: Search for books, media, and articles at once.  Limit your results with the selectors on the left hand side of the page. 
  • Interlibrary loan: If we don't have the book or article you need, we will borrow it from another library for you.  For free.  Books can take up to a week to get here; articles take 24-48 hours.
  • Help: Email rothnw@sunybroome.edu, or stop by or call the Reference Desk: 607-778-5043

Primary Sources:

What are primary sources?

A primary source is a first-hand account of an event or time period that was created by the participants or observers. Primary sources enable historians to stand as close to the past as possible without actually being present at the event.

Examples of primary sources include:

  • Original documents such as letters, manuscripts, diaries, speeches
  • Autobiographies & memoirs
  • Artifacts from researched time period such as clothing, tools, etc.
  • Records from governmental agencies & non-governmental organizations 
  • Photographs and other audio-visual materials
  • Newspaper articles & books that are contemporaneous to the time under study
  • Maps
  • Court cases

Guide to Primary Sources (http://sunybroome.info/library/guides/primary-sources)

Recommended Sites:

Contains legislative documents, iconic speeches, Supreme Court decisions, and writings by civil rights leaders.


              Example source from this database: Stokley Carmichael's 'Black Power'


         Spans more than 500 years of political, military, social, and cultural history, highlighting the important people and events of the American experience. To Browse, select 'Sources' from the database main menu to access primary sources.  To Search primary sources, select 'Advanced Search' and limit the search to 'primary sources only'


                 Example source from this database: First televised presidential debate

This database provides access to digital collections of primary sources (photos, letters, diaries, artifacts, etc.) that document the history of women in the United States. These diverse collections range from Ancestral Pueblo pottery to interviews with women engineers from the 1970s.

Peer Reviewed Articles:

What are Peer Reviewed Articles?

Simply stated, a peer reviewed article is: an article in an academic journal that has been critically evaluated by scholars (experts) in that field.  Before an article is deemed appropriate to be published in a peer-reviewed journal, it must undergo the following process: 

  •  The author of the article must submit it to the journal editor who forwards the article to experts in the field. Because the reviewers specialize in the same scholarly area as the author, they are considered the author’s peers (hence “peer review”).
  •  These impartial reviewers are charged with carefully evaluating the quality of the submitted text.
  •  The peer reviewers check the text for accuracy and assess the validity of the research methodology and procedures. 
  •  If appropriate, they suggest revisions. If they find the article lacking in scholarly validity and rigor, they reject it.

·     Because a peer-reviewed journal will not publish articles that fail to meet the standards established for a given discipline, peer-reviewed articles that are accepted for publication exemplify the best research practices in a field.

Features of a Peer-Reviewed Article

When you are determining whether or not the article you found is a peer-reviewed article, you should consider the following questions:

Is the journal in which you found the article published or sponsored by a professional scholarly society, professional association, or university academic department? Does it describe itself as a peer-reviewed publication? (To know that, check the journal's website). 

Did you find a citation for it in one of the  databases that includes scholarly publications? (JSTOR, EBSCOhost Academic Search Complete,  etc.)?  Read the database description to see if it includes scholarly publications. 

Did you limit your search to scholarly or peer-reviewed publications? 

Is there an abstract (summary) at the beginning of the article? 

Is the tone of the article thoughtful, restrained and serious? 

Does the article have footnotes or citations of other sources? 

Does the article have a bibliography or list of references at the end? 

Are the author's credentials listed? 

Is the topic of the article narrowly focused and explored in depth? 

Is the article based on either original research or authorities in the field(as opposed to personal opinion)? 

Is the article written for readers with some prior knowledge of the subject?

Where to find Peer Reviewed Articles:

History Databases in the library (many of these databases contain scholarly articles)

E-journals that cover U.S. history (listing of full-text e-journals, most are contained in the recommended databases below)

Recommended Sites:

Academic Search Complete

Contains a collection of full-text peer reviewed and popular articles.  Remember to limit your search to 'Scholarly (Peer Reviewed) Journals'.  Use the 'Subject Terms' link to find the appropriate search term for your topic.

                         Example search: Nixon-Kennedy debate


Contains a collection of full-text peer reviewed articles, reviews, and primary sources.  Remember to limit your search to 'Articles' and 'History Journals'.